~The Olympic Creed~
“The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered, but to have fought well.”
‘Flame’ ~ Olympic History in song
The link below takes you to an informative website about the Ancient Olympics. Read through the different chapters and take the quiz. Don’t forget to visit the ancient games!
The History of the Ancient Olympic Games Website
Click on the link above and research the history of the Ancient Olympic Games. Use the information on this website to answer the following questions:
1. When were the first Olympic Games?
2. What events took place in the Ancient Olympic Games?
3. Who took part in the Ancient Olympic Games?
4. Were women allowed at the Ancient Olympic Games?
The birth of the Modern Olympics
Modern Olympic Facts
Who revived the idea of the Olympic Games?
A French nobleman, Pierre Fredy, the Baron de Coubertin, born in 1863. When he was young, Coubertin was a very keen sportsman. As he grew older he developed a passionate belief that sport could encourage peace throughout the world and bring people from all over the world together.
Coubertin was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and travelled around the world, spending his own money, trying to persuade people to revive them. Eventually he managed to bring together representatives of many different countries in Paris, in 1894, and the Olympic Movement was begun.
When and where were the first modern Olympic Games held?
The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896.
Did women compete in this first modern Olympic Games?
No! Women began to compete in 1900. For many years there were problems for the women athletes about what to wear, because it was considered very rude to show any part of the body or even the shape of the body! Can you imagine trying to run and jump covered from head to foot in clothes?
Who supervises the Olympic Games?
When Baron de Coubertin founded the Olympic Movement he established the International Olympic Committee (the IOC) to supervise it, in 1894. He himself served as its president for 29 years, and there have been 8 presidents since then. There were originally 14 members but the Committee has now grown to over 130 members, all of whom must speak either French or English. Existing members elect new members as required. The IOC is based in Lausanne, Switzerland.
What is the aim of the Olympic Movement?
“The goal of the Olympic Movement is to contribute to building a peaceful and better world by educating youth through sport practiced without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play.”
What is an Olympiad?
An Olympiad is the period of four years which starts with a summer Olympic Games. Each Olympiad is counted with Roman numerals, and the year of the Games cannot be changed (although Games have been skipped out, as in 1916 during the First World War).
Who chooses the next host for the Olympic Games, and how?
Members of the IOC choose the next venue for the Olympic Games, which must be a city rather than a country. So, for example, the next Olympics, in 2016, will be hosted by Rio de Janeiro, rather than Brazil. Any city which wishes to host the Games can put their bid to the IOC. Only one city from each country can bid, and even putting forward a bid takes a huge amount of work and is very expensive. It usually takes many years to prepare, and of course only one city can be successful!
Who selects each country’s team of athletes?
Each country has their own National Olympic Committee (NOC). The NOCs represent their countries at the Olympic Games and select their own national teams.
What is the Olympic torch?
Prior to each Games, the Olympic Torch or Flame is lit in Olympia, Greece and brought to the host city by runners carrying the torch in relay.
What is the Olympic creed?
“The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.”
Who wins medals?
The athletes or teams who come first, second and third win medals: respectively gold, silver and bronze.
Are the gold medals real gold?
No! They were solid gold until 1912, but are now silver covered with a thin layer of gold.
Why do we have the Olympic rings as the emblem of the Olympic Games?
The five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) of the emblem was originally designed in 1913 by Pierre de Coubertin, to symbolize the five continents of the world taking part in the Olympic Games (the Americas are viewed as a single continent, and Antarctica is omitted).
Olympics Fun Facts
- The early Olympic Games were celebrated as a religious festival from 776 B.C. until 393 A.D., when the games were banned for being a pagan festival (the Olympics celebrated the Greek god Zeus). In 1894, a French educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin, proposed a revival of the ancient tradition, and thus the modern-day Olympic Summer Games were born.
- Host Greece won the most medals (47) at the first Olympic Summer Games in 1896.
- The first Winter Olympic Games were held in Chamonix, France in 1924.
- Norway has won the most medals (263) at the Winter Games.
- The United States has won more medals at the Summer Games than any other country.
- The five Olympic rings represent the five major regions of the world – Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceana, and every national flag in the world includes one of the five colours, which are (from left to right) blue, yellow, black, green, and red.
- Up until 1994 the Olympics were held every four years. Since then, the Winter and Summer games have alternated every two years.
- No country in the Southern Hemisphere has ever hosted a Winter Games.
- Three continents – Africa, South America, and Antarctica – have never hosted an Olympics.
- A record 202 countries participated in the 2004 Olympic Summer Games in Athens.
- Only four athletes have ever won medals at both the Winter and Summer Olympic Games: Eddie Eagan (United States), Jacob Tullin Thams (Norway), Christa Luding-Rothenburger (East Germany), and Clara Hughes (Canada).
- Nobody has won more medals at the Winter Games than cross-country skier Bjorn Dählie of Norway, who has 12.
- The Summer Olympic sports are archery, badminton, basketball, beach volleyball, boxing, canoe / kayak, cycling, diving, equestrian, fencing, field hockey, gymnastics, handball, judo, modern pentathlon (shooting, fencing, swimming, show jumping, and running), mountain biking, rowing, sailing, shooting, soccer, swimming, synchronized swimming, table tennis, taekwondo, tennis, track and field, triathlon (swimming, biking, running), volleyball, water polo, weightlifting, and wrestling.
- The Winter Olympic sports are alpine skiing, biathlon (cross-country skiing and target shooting), bobsled, cross-country skiing, curling, figure skating, freestyle skiing, ice hocky, luge, Nordic combined (ski jumping and cross-country skiing), skeleton, ski jumping, snowboarding, and speed skating.
- Athletes at the Olympic Games have to be careful how much coffee they drink. The caffeine in coffee is a banned substance because it can enhance performance. One or two cups are fine but they can go over the limit with more than five. (update – as of 2004 caffeine has been taken back off the WADA banned list but its use will be closely monitored to prevent future abuse by athletes.)
Modern and Ancient Olympics
Profiles of Paralympians
Make a Crystal Snowflake
Make a snowflake using borax and a few other easy to find household items. Find out how crystals are formed in this fun crystal activity, experiment with food colouring to enhance the look of your crystal snowflake.
What you’ll need:
- Wide mouth jar
- White pipe cleaners
- Blue food colouring (optional)
- Boiling water
- Small wooden rod or pencil
- Grab a white pipe cleaner and cut it into three sections of the same size. Twist these sections together in the center so that you now have a shape that looks something like a six-sided star. Make sure the points of your shape are even by trimming them to the same length.
- Take the top of one of the pipe cleaners and attach another piece of string to it. Tie the opposite end to your small wooden rod or pencil. You will use this to hang your completed snowflake.
- Carefully fill the jar with boiling water (you might want to get an adult to help with this part).
- For each cup of water add three tablespoons of borax, adding one tablespoon at a time. Stir until the mixture is dissolved but don’t worry if some of the borax settles at the base of the jar.
- Add some of the optional blue food coloring if you’d like to give your snowflake a nice bluish tinge.
- Put the pipe cleaner snowflake into the jar so that the small wooden rod or pencil is resting on the edge of the jar and the snowflake is sitting freely in the borax solution.
- Leave the snowflake overnight and when you return in the morning you will find the snowflake covered in crystals! It makes a great decoration that you can show your friends or hang somewhere in your house.
Crystals are made up of molecules arranged in a repeating pattern that extends in all three dimensions. Borax is also known as sodium borate, it is usually found in the form of a white powder made up of colourless crystals that are easily dissolved in water.
When you add the borax to the boiling water you can dissolve more than you could if you were adding it to cold water, this is because warmer water molecules move around faster and are more spread apart, allowing more room for the borax crystals to dissolve.
When the solution cools, the water molecules move closer together and it can’t hold as much of the borax solution. Crystals begin to form on top of each other and before you know it you have your completed crystal snow flake!
ALFRED NOBEL – Extraordinary Chemist
Born On: 21 October 1833 AD
Born In: Stockholm, Sweden
Died On: 10 December 1896 AD
Place Of Death: Sanremo, Italy
Father: Immanuel Nobel (1801–1872)
Mother: Karolina Andriette (Ahlsell) Nobel
Siblings: Emil, Ludvig, Robert
Education: Jacobs Apologistic School
Discoveries / Inventions: Dynamite
Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish inventor, engineer and industrialist who had obtained a total of 355 patents in his lifetime. He was most well-known for inventing dynamite, and for developing some more powerful explosives and detonators to effectively ignite them. He built a network of almost a hundred factories all over the world to manufacture explosives and ammunition, and amassed a massive fortune from his businesses. In fact, at the time of his death, he was one of the wealthiest persons in the world. Since he was unmarried and childless, there were many speculations about the contents of his last will which he had signed on 27th November, 1895. The contents of his will caused a lot of disappointment to his much hopeful extended family as Nobel had left much of his wealth for the establishment of an international prize fund! As the inventor of dynamite, he had earned the sobriquet, ‘The Merchant of Death’ which deeply traumatized Nobel who was a pacifist at heart. He did not want to be remembered as the reason behind mass destruction after his death, and in order to redeem his posthumous reputation, he left the major portion of his wealth for the establishment of the Nobel Prizes to be awarded for eminence in five different fields, without any discrimination on basis of nationality.
DOCUMENT LINK: Alfred Nobel Profile
Information sourced from: http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/alfred-nobel-4234.php
Make an Easy Lava Lamp
Make an easy lava lamp with this fun science experiment. Use simple household items such as vegetable oil, food colouring, Alka-Seltzer and a bottle to create chemical reactions and funky balls of colour that move around like a real lava lamp.
What you’ll need:
- A clear plastic bottle
- Vegetable oil
- Food colouring
- Alka-Seltzer (or other tablets that fizz)
- Pour water into the plastic bottle until it is around one quarter full (you might want to use a funnel when filling the bottle so you don’t spill anything).
- Pour in vegetable oil until the bottle is nearly full.
- Wait until the oil and water have separated.
- Add around a dozen drops of food colouring to the bottle (choose any colour you like).
- Watch as the food colouring falls through the oil and mixes with the water.
- Cut an Alka-Seltzer tablet into smaller pieces (around 5 or 6) and drop one of them into the bottle, things should start getting a little crazy, just like a real lava lamp!
- When the bubbling stops, add another piece of Alka-Seltzer and enjoy the show!
The oil and water you added to the bottle separate from each other, with oil on top because it has a lower density than water. The food colouring falls through the oil and mixes with the water at the bottom. The piece of Alka-Seltzer tablet you drop in after releases small bubbles of carbon dioxide gas that rise to the top and take some of the coloured water along for the ride. The gas escapes when it reaches the top and the coloured water falls back down. The reason Alka-Seltzer fizzes in such a way is because it contains citric acid and baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), the two react with water to form sodium citrate and carbon dioxide gas (those are the bubbles that carry the coloured water to the top of the bottle).
Adding more Alka-Seltzer to the bottle keeps the reaction going so you can enjoy your funky lava lamp for longer. If you want to show someone later you can simply screw on a bottle cap and add more Alka-Seltzer when you need to. When you’ve finished all your Alka-Seltzer, you can take the experiment a step further by tightly screwing on a bottle cap and tipping the bottle back and forth, what happens then?
Changing State of Water
Solid, Liquids & Gases
Read some fun chemistry facts for kids and find out more about atoms, elements, gases, liquids, solids, experiments, cool chemicals and much more. Children will love the did you know facts and other interesting chemistry information that will help them learn a thing or two along the way.
Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 1. It is highly flammable and is the most common element found in our universe. Morehydrogen facts.
- Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 kelvin (−196 °C, −321 °F). More nitrogen facts.
- Around 1% of the sun’s mass is oxygen. More oxygen facts.
- Helium is lighter than the air around us so it floats, that’s why it is perfect for the balloons you get at parties. More helium facts.
- Carbon comes in a number of different forms (allotropes), these include diamond, graphite and impure forms such as coal. More carbon facts, diamond facts, and coal facts.
- Under normal conditions, oil and water do not mix. More oil facts.
- Although it is still debated, it is largely recognized that the word ‘chemistry’ comes from an Egyptian word meaning ‘earth’.
- The use of various forms of chemistry is believed to go back as long ago as the Ancient Egyptians. By 1000 BC civilizations were using more complex forms of chemistry such as using plants for medicine, extracting metal from ores, fermenting wine and making cosmetics.
- Things invisible to the human eye can often be seen under UV light, which comes in handy for both scientists and detectives.
- Humans breathe out carbon dioxide (CO2). Using energy from sunlight, plantsconvert carbon dioxide into food during a process called photosynthesis.
- Chemical reactions occur all the time, including through everyday activities such as cooking. Try adding an acid such as vinegar to a base such as baking soda and see what happens!
- Above 4 °C, water expands when heated and contracts when cooled. But between 4 °C and 0 °C it does the opposite, contracting when heated and expanding when cooled. Stronger hydrogen and oxygen bonds are formed as the water crystallizes into ice. By the time it’s frozen it takes up around 9% more space.
- Often formed under intense pressure over time, a crystal is made up of molecules or atoms that are repeated in a three dimensional repeating pattern. Quartz is a well known example of a crystal.
Remembering Australians in War
ANIMALS IN WAR DOCUMENT
RECRUITING SOLDIERS FOR WAR
Where in the world Australians have served in war
Flying the Flag
Uniforms Over Time
Simpson and His Donkey
Simpson used a donkey called Duffy to help him carry injured soldiers to safety at Gallipoli. Simpson’s full name was John Simpson Kirkpatrick.
Simpson and his donkey became famous among the Australian soldiers at Gallipoli because of their bravery. Day after day, and week after week Simpson and his donkey would wind their way through the hills and valleys looking for wounded soldiers. Even though it was very dangerous, Simpson would crawl on his belly and drag soldiers back to safety. He would then put the injured soldier on the donkey’s back and lead him down to the beach.
One day Duffy came down to the beach with a soldier on his back, but without Simpson. Simpson had been killed trying to save another soldier. The donkey somehow knew that even though his friend was dead, Simpson would have wanted him to take the injured man to safety.
Women in War
Perhaps the most famous Australian woman in war was Nancy Wake, code named The White Mouse. Nancy Wake was born in New Zealand but grew up in Australia and is one of the most decorated women of WWII. She was code-named the ‘White Mouse’ by the Gestapo because she continuously eluded capture. Living in Marseilles, France, between 1940 and 1942 she fought with the ‘Resistance’ and helped sabotage the Nazis thus saving the lives of hundreds of Allied Troops! Nancy was awarded the George Medal in July 1945 and was made a Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) in February 2004.
Sir Edward ‘Weary’ Dunlop
Sir Edward Weary Dunlop was a surgeon in the Australian Army during World War Two. He is legendary for his care of soldiers taken prisoner by the Japanese. His nickname might have been Weary but his nature certainly wasn’t. Even in the most horrific conditions Weary found energy to fight for the wellbeing and often, the lives of these men. Weary grew up on farms in country Victoria. He loved adventures and he liked to prove he was tougher than the rest.
” I used to walk down barefoot and jump on top of my favourite riding horse and round up the horses – it was quite an impressive cavalcade.”
Weary was a natural athlete and at school in Benalla, he preferred to play sport than to study. When he left school Weary took a job in a pharmacy. But he grew bored with small town life and headed for Melbourne in 1927. Here Weary took a new career path, and began studying medicine at Melbourne University. He also played with Australia’s national rugby team, The Wallabies, and was a champion boxer. Soon after graduating Weary took a job as a ship’s surgeon and sailed to London.
The next year World War Two broke out. Weary knew his skills were needed closer to the action. “I just couldn’t get into the army quick enough” About a year after enlisting in the Australian Army, Weary was sent to Java in Indonesia. The Japanese had attacked the island, and Weary was needed to help treat the casualties. But just two weeks after his arrival Japanese troops captured the town where Weary was living. The prisoners were taken by ship from Singapore to Burma, and then crammed into train carriages for a five day horror ride into Thailand. The Japanese wanted to build a 421 kilometre long railway from west Thailand into Burma. The work required physical strength and good tools. The prisoners had neither.
“I’d see these fellas off at the crack of dawn, just carrying their rice for the day, and then they would drag in any time up until midnight, some of them on their hands and knees.”
As a commander, Weary had the awful job of deciding who was fit enough to work. As a surgeon, he was also the one who patched the men up after their hours of hard labour. Standing nearly two metres tall, Weary had to stoop as he operated on patients beneath kerosene lamps.
“Weary was never sitting down. He was always on his feet, and his feet were terrible with ulcers. He had all these complaints too, you know. The germs didn’t leave him alone.”
Weary argued with his captors about making sick men work.
“I’d have all sorts of conspiracies. I’d tell the fellas to start to march, but collapse and I’ll grab you.”
Former prisoner of War, Bill Griffiths is among the many who owe their lives to Weary. The Japanese planned to kill him. What use is a disabled man, it was argued. Weary stepped in front of the bayonets and refused to move until Bill’s life was spared. A habit of keeping track of the war via a hidden wireless also landed Weary in the firing line.
“I got handcuffed around a tree, my tummy exposed to four bayonets and a countdown. Things were pretty grim.” Weary ended up being tortured instead … but the experience only made him more defiant.
After the war Weary continued to work as a surgeon in Australia and parts of Asia. In 1969, he was knighted in recognition of his contribution to medicine. Weary’s compassionate nature enabled him to forgive and even meet, some of his former enemies.
In 1993, ten days short of his 86th birthday, Sir Edward Weary Dunlop died. More than ten thousand people lined the streets of Melbourne for the state funeral of the man they called ‘The Surgeon of the Railway’.
“I have a conviction that it’s only when you are put at full stretch that you can realise your full potential.” If ever anyone lived life at full stretch, it was Weary.
The Skeletal System
Click on this picture to watch a short clip about the Skeletal System.
The Bones in your Body
A baby’s body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults have. Some of a baby’s bones are made entirely of a special material called cartilage. Other bones in a baby are partly made of cartilage. This cartilage is soft and flexible. During childhood, as you are growing, the cartilage grows and is slowly replaced by bone, with help from calcium.
By the time you are about 25, this process will be complete. After this happens, there can be no more growth — the bones are as big as they will ever be. All of these bones make up a skeleton that is both very strong and very light.
Discover the different bones that make up the human skeleton.
What does the skeleton look like?
Watch this video to find out.
Skeletons are made up of bones, but what exactly is a bone?
Click on this link to learn about bones.
BUILD A SKELETON
HOW DOES YOUR BODY MOVE?
Play The Haunted House game to find out how.
All Systems Go!
Our bodies are made up of many different systems, the skeletal system is just one of many. All Systems Go is a game that helps you build the many different systems of the human body.
The Digestive System
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM JIGSAW
Click on the picture below to discover the different parts of the Digestive System.
THE MAGIC SCHOOL BUS FOR LUNCH
The link below takes you to a different website.
Once you have entered this website, scroll down until you locate the Digestion link. Click on this link, view the video and then play the Quiz. Have fun!
To encourage indigenous wildlife into our school, the students constructed nesting boxes to be placed in trees. The students glued, screwed and followed tricky instructions to create fantastic nesting boxes.
Watch this interesting video to view the different layers of our body.